TIBBETS BROOK PARK

Yonkers, Westchester County, NY


Directions:

Henry Hudson Parkway north to Saw Mill River Parkway.  Exit at Cross County Parkway. Get off at the very first exit and turn right at the stop sign.  Drive south along Midland Avenue for less than a mile and turn right into the park entrance opposite Teresa Avenue on the left.  


Midland Avenue - Yonkers - (914)965-1901 - Swimming, picnicking, hiking, fishing in the warm weather; sledding, skiing, ice skating in the winter months. Westchester County passes are required for admission.  (Although on non-busy or off-season days or weekdays in off peak season, have been able to get in without having to pass an admissions gate.)


History:

During the American Revolution, Sachem Daniel Ninham (see Ninham Mountain, Putnam County) and his people joined Ethan Allen and fought in New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey against the British and the Iroquois.  Ninham actually rose to the rank of  captain.  On August 30 and 31, 1778 Ninham's men, along with a company of Americans, fought British troops at the Battle of Tibbet's Brook.  Ninham, his son, and forty of his men died during the battle.  They were buried where they fell, a place now known as Indian Field. (Peggy Turco 1990:76)

The Old Croton Aqueduct Trail goes west to east across the northern and northeastern part of Tibbets Brook park. The trail has an interesting history. A cholera epidemic in 1832 and a disastrous fire in 1835 led to awareness that a more adequate water supply was needed for New York City. The most abundant source of water was from the Croton watershed in upper Westchester County. Workers began constructing the aqueduct in 1837. The aqueduct went into operation on July 4, 1842. The Croton dam is just a little south of Peekskill. The aqueduct descends 46.3 feet at the rate of 13.25 inches per mile and travels 32 miles to its terminal point at 173rd Street in upper Manhattan. The High Bridge over the Harlem River was completed in 1848. It was not until 1872 that the neo-Romanesque water towers was constructed at the Manhattan end of the bridge.

The aqueduct delivered as much as 100 million gallons of water per day to Manhattan. But it was soon obsolete and a new Croton Aqueduct system with three times the capacity, was constructed between 1884 and 1893 (no trail was included in that project). This in turn was supplemented by the Catskill Aqueduct system, built between 1907 and 1917. (A trail on top of this aqueduct may be followed, with many interruptions, from Yonkers all the way to the Catskill region).

In 1966, at the urging of the Croton Aqueduct Association, the New York/New Jersey Trail Conference, and other outdoor groups, the state under Governor Nelson Rockefeller assumed responsibility for the trail north of the New York City line. The longest continuous stretch of the aqueduct runs about nine miles from a point slightly south of the Tappan Zee Bridge down to Yonkers, about 10 miles north of the George Washington Bridge. It goes from Lyndhurst through Irvington, Ardsley, Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, crossing Broadway, Hastings-on-Hudson, Yonkers, Untermeyer Park, goes just east of Trevor Park, and ends at Lamartine Avenue. After a break the trail starts up again in Tibbets Brook Park.

8/12/04.  Brother-in-law Ceferino Santana and I walked around the park.  There are way too many invasive plants here, especially porcelain berry.  Dr. Patrick L. Cooney.



PLANT LIST:

Dr. Edward Frankel (a few by Dr. Patrick L. Cooney)


Trees:
Acer campestris (field maple)
Acer japonica (Japanese maple)
Acer negundo (box elder maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple) 4/26/97
Acer palmatum (Japanese maple)
Acer platanoides (Norway maple) 4/26/97
Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven) lots
Albizia julibrissin (silk tree)
Amelanchier arborea (shadbush)
Betula lenta (black birch)
Betula nigra (river birch)
Betula populifolia (gray birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (musclewood)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory)
Carya glabra (pignut hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
Catalpa bignonioides (southern catalpa)
Catalpa speciosa (northern catalpa)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry)
Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) 4/26/97
Crataegus phaenopyrum (hawthorn)
Crataegus sp. (hawthorn)
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
Forsythia intermedia (forsythia)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus excelsior (European ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (red ash)
Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis (honey locust)
Juglans cinerea (butternut walnut)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)
Larix laricina (tamarack)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
Magnolia sp. (saucer magnolia) 4/26/97
Morus alba (white mulberry)
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo)
Ostrya virginiana (eastern hop hornbeam)
Picea abies (Norway spruce)
Picea pungens (Colorado blue spruce)
Pinus nigra (Austrian pine)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Pinus sylvestris (scotch pine)
Pinus thunbergii (Japanese black pine)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain)
Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore)
Platanus x hybrida (London plane tree)
Prunus avium (bird cherry tree) 4/23/97
Prunus pensylvanica (pin cherry tree)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Pyrus communis (pear)
Pyrus malus (apple tree)
Pyrus malus floribunda (Japanese flowering crab) 4/26/97
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus prinus (chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Rhus copallina (winged sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)
Salix alba (white willow)
Salix babylonica (weeping willow)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Salilx sp. (corkscrew willow?)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Sorbus americana (American mountain ash) planted
Storax sp.? (snow-ball tree) planted
Taxus baccata (yew)
Thuja occidentalis (arbor vitae) planted
Thuja orientalis (Asiatic arborvitae) planted
Tilia americana (American basswood)
Tilia cordata (basswood)
Tilia europaea (European basswood)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)

Shrubs:
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Barbarea vulgaris (common wintercress) 4/23/97
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) 4/26/97
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
Cornus amomum (swamp dogwood)
Cornus kousa (kousa dogwood)
Cornus mas (Cornelia cherry dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray-stem dogwood)
Cornus sericea (red-osier dogwood)
Eubotrys racemosa (fetterbush)
Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus)
Euonymus fortunei (euonymus)
Forsythia sp. (golden bells)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Hibiscus syriacus (rose of sharon) 8/12/04
Ilex verticillata (winterberry holly)
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Ligustrum vulgare (privet)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush) 4/26/97
Lonicera morrowii (Morrow's honeysuckle bush)
Philadelphus coronarius (mock orange)
Prunus virginiana (choke cherry)
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn)
Rhamnus cathartica (common buckthorn)
Rhamnus frangula (European buckthorn)
Rhododendron maximum (rosebay rhododendron)
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)
Rosa rugosa (wrinkled rose)
Rubus alleghaniensis (common blackberry)
Rubus odoratus (flowering raspberry)
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry)
Spiraea sp. (spiraea hort.)
Vaccinium corymbosum (high bush blueberry)
Vaccinium pallidum (hillside blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple-leaf viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum v. lucidum (arrowwood viburnum)
Viburnum dilatatum (Asian viburnum)
Viburnum lantana (wayfaring tree viburnum)
Viburnum lentago (sweet viburnum)
Viburnum nudum v. cassinoides (witherod viburnum)
Viburnum opulus (guelder rose viburnum)
Viburnum plicatum (double-file viburnum)
Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw viburnum)
Viburnum sieboldii (Siebold's viburnum)
Vinca minor (periwinkle) 4/26/97
Weigelia rosa (weigelia)
Xanthorhiza simplicissima (shrub yellowroot) 4/26/97

Vines:
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (porcelain berry) -- way too much of it
Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Cuscuta sp. (dodder)
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber vine)
Hedera helix (English ivy)
Humulus japonicus (Japanese hops)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
Menispermum canadense (Canada moonseed)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Boston ivy)
Smilax glauca (sawbrier)
Smilax rotundifolia (round-leaf greenbrier)
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade)
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Vitis aestivalis (summer grape)
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)
Vitis riparia (river grape)
Wisteria sp. (wisteria)

Herbs:
Acalypha sp. (copperleaf)
Agrimonia gryposepala (agrimony)
Ajuga reptans (bugleweed)
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) 4/26/97
Allium tricoccum (wild leek)
Allium vineale (field garlic)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) 8/12/04
Ambrosia trifida (great ragweed) 8/12/04
Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut)
Anthriscus sylvestris (wild chervil)
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp) 8/12/04
Arctium lappa (great burdock) 8/12/04
Arctium minus (common burdock) 8/12/04
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster) 8/12/04
Aster sp. (aster)
Baptisia sp. (indigo)
Bidens sp. (three leaflet beggar ticks)
Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)
Cardamine concatenata (cut-leaved toothwort) 4/26/97
Cardamine pensylvanica (Pennsylvania bittercress)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh) 4/26/97
Centaurea sp. (hybrid knapweed) 8/12/04
Chenopodium album (pigweed)
Cichorium intybus (chicory) 8/12/04
Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade)
Claytonia virginica (spring beauty)
Commelina communis (Asiatic dayflower) 8/12/04
Conyza canadensis (horseweed) 8/12/04
Convallaria majalis ? (lily of the valley)
Coronilla varia (crown vetch)
Cryptotaenia canadensis (honewort)
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace) 8/12/04
Desmodium sp. (tick trefoil)
Draba verna (whitlow-grass) 4/23/97
Epifagus virginiana (beech drops)
Epilobium coloratum (purple willowherb) 8/12/04
Erechtites hieraciifolia (pileweed)
Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane) 8/12/04
Erythronium americanum (trout lily) 4/26/97
Eupatorium fistulosum (trumpetweed) 8/12/04
Euphorbia nutans (spotted spurge) 8/12/04
Fragaria sp. (strawberry)
Galium mollugo (wild madder)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium)
Geum canadense (white avens) 8/12/04
Glechoma hederacea (gill-over-the-ground) 4/26/97
Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) 8/12/04
Hemerocallis fulva (tawny day lily)
Hesperis matronalis (dame's rocket)
Hieracium sp. (hawkweed)
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed) 8/12/04
Iris sp. (blue or yellow flag iris)
Lactuca canadensis (wild lettuce)
Lamium purpureum (purple dead nettle) 4/26/97
Lepidium virginicum (poor man's pepper) 8/12/04
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco) 8/12/04
Ludwigia palustris (water purslane)
Lycopus americanus (American horehound)
Lysimachia nummularia (moneywort)
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) 8/12/04
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower)
Nelumbo lutea (sacred Lotus)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose) 8/12/04
Oxalis sp. (yellow wood sorrel) 8/12/04
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) 8/12/04
Pilea pumila (clearweed)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) 8/12/04
Plantago major (common plantain)
Polygonatum pubescens (hairy Solomon's seal)
Polygonum cespitosum (cespitose smartweed) 8/12/04
Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed) 8/12/04
Polygonum sp. (smartweed)
Polygonum virginianum (jumpseed) 8/12/04
Potentilla canadensis (dwarf cinquefoil) 4/26/97
Prenanthes sp. (rattlesnake root with halberd leaves) 8/12/04 soon
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal) 8/12/04
Ranunculus bulbosus (bulbous buttercup)
Ranunculus ficaria (lesser celandine) 4/23/97 4/26/97
Rumex obtusifolius (broad dock)
Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot) 4/23/97 4/26/97
Sagittaria latifolia (broad-leaved arrowhead)
Scutellaria lateriflora (mad-dog skullcap) 8/12/04
Silene stellata (starry campion) 8/12/04
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal)
Solanum carolinense (horse nettle) 8/12/04
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade) 8/12/04
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod) 8/12/04
Solidago rugosa (rough-stemmed goldenrod) 8/12/04
Sparganium americanum (tall burreed)
Stellaria media (common chickweed)
Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage)
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 4/26/97 8/12/04
Trapa natans (water chestnut)
Trifolium pratense (red clover) 8/12/04
Trifolium repens (white clover) 8/12/04
Typha latifolia (broad leaved cattail)
Verbena urticifolia (white vervain) 8/12/04
Veronica officinalis (common speedwell)
Viola pubescens (smooth yellow violet) 4/23/97 4/26/97
Viola sororia (common blue violet) 4/23/97 4/26/97
Viola sororia f. priceana (confederate violet) 4/23/97
Yucca filamentosa (yucca)

Rushes:
Juncus tenuis (path rush)
Luzula multiflora (wood rush) 4/23/97 4/26/97

Sedges:
Carex laxiflora type (loose-flowered type sedge)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sack sedge) 4/26/97
Cyperus sp. (nut or umbrella sedge)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)

Grasses:
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass)
Echinochloa sp. (barnyard grass)
Eleusine indica (zipper grass)
Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass)
Paspalum sp. (bead grass)
Phleum pratense (timothy grass)
Phragmites australis (giant reed grass)
Poa annua (annual blue grass) 4/26/97
Tridens flavus (purple top grass)

Ferns and Fern Allies:
Equisetum arvense (field horsetail)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern)



Tibbets Brook Preserve, Yonkers, Westchester County, April 26, 1997.
On a beautiful sunny day members of the Torrey Botanical Society toured Tibbets Brook Preserve, including parts of the old Croton Aqueduct Trail that travel though the park on the park's northern and northeastern edges. In bloom were: Acer rubrum and A. platanoides, Alliaria petiolata, Barbarea vulgaris, Berberis thunbergii, Cardamine concatenata, Carex pensylvanica, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Cornus florida (bracts displayed), Erythronium americanum, Glechoma hederacea, Lamium pupureum, Lindera benzoin, Luzula multiflora, Poa annua, Potentilla canadensis, Pyrus malus floribunda, Ranunculus ficaria, Sanguinaria canadensis, Taraxacum officinale, Vinca minor, and V. soraria.

The plant that caused the most interest was shrub yellowroot (Xanthorrhiza simplicissima; Ranunculaceae), which was in bloom. None of the participants had ever seen the plant before. The plant has a great many tiny purple flowers in drooping racemes. The group also noted the appearance of wild chervil (Anthriscus sylvestris) on the old Croton Aqueduct Trail. It is a very widespread plant of the Saw Mill River floodplain, so it is interesting to watch its progress in other places.

Total attendance was seven. The leader was Dr. Edward Frankel with assistance from Dr. Patrick Cooney.